Involvement Of Ppara AND p In Diabetic Nephropathy

PPAR-a is highly expressed in renal proximal tubules in which it influences metabolic activity (140). PPAR-a plays a role in lipid metabolism in renal cortex because its activation by clofibrates induces expression of 0-oxidation enzymes (141). Clinical evidence also suggests a beneficial effect of PPAR-a ligands on DN (142,143). In type 2 diabetic patients, treatment of dyslipidemia with gemfibrozil, one of antidyslipidemic agents and PPAR-a activators, stabilizes the increase in urinary albumin excretion

(143). In db/db type 2 diabetic mice, treatment with fenofibrate, another of PPAR-a activator, improves urinary albumin excretion rate and glomerular mesangial expansion

(144). One possible mechanism of PPAR-a action on the mesangial matrix production may be related to TGF-0 signaling (145). Clofibrate directly inhibits oxidant stress-induced TGF-0 expression in MCs (145). In addition, fenofibrate also downregulates TGF-0 and TGF-0 receptor type-2 expression decreasing type-IV collagen accumulation in diabetic glomeruli (144).

PPAR-0/5 is equally expressed in renal cortex and medulla as well as other tissues (48). However, the role of PPAR-0/5 in the kidney remains poorly understood. Overexpression of this isoform protects cultured medullary interstitial cells from hypertonicity-induced cell death, suggesting that PPAR-0/5 is an important survival factor for these cells exposed to the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla (146). Further studies are necessary to clarify the effect of PPAR-0/5 in kidney.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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