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PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

approx 63,000 new cases annually of PDR, 29,000 of whom developed PDR with Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS) high-risk characteristics for severe visual loss. In addition, there were 50,000 new cases of macular edema a year in the United States. These figures probably overestimate the actual incidence and progression of retinopathy because achievement of glycemic and blood pressure control is better than when the WESDR cohort was first studied 25 yr ago. Data from a Danish study showed a decrease in the cumulative incidence of diabetic retinopathy in persons with type 1 diabetes over a 35-yr period attributed to improved glycemic control, lower blood pressure levels, and reductions in smoking (28).

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