collagen isotypes. These actions are especially relevant to DN, a disease characterized by glomerular and tubular hypertrophy and ECM accumulation. The consequences of matrix buildup manifest as arteriolar hyalinosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, mesangial matrix expansion (glomerulosclerosis), and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. In turn, these sclerotic lesions are thought to contribute to progressive renal dysfunction by obliterating the glomerular capillary loops and by displacing or destroying the tubulo-interstitium, causing loss of nephron mass and progressive kidney dysfunction.

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