Initially, non-invasive angiography should be carried out. This is either duplex angiography or magnetic reson ance angiography (MRA), which should be carried out urgently to detect the presence of stenoses or occlusions which may be amenable to angioplasty or bypass.

Duplex angiography

Duplex angiography is proficient at looking at the femoral and popliteal arteries but it is sometimes difficult to obtain good views of the infrapopliteal arteries and foot arteries because of the excessive calcification in the diabetic patient.

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) MRA is useful

• When femoral access is difficult

• When there is severely impaired renal function

• For delineating the aortoiliac circulation

• For demonstrating infrapopliteal vessels.

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