Insulin secretion in individuals without diabetes

When considering insulin therapy, it is helpful to keep normal insulin patterns in mind. Euglycemia can best be achieved, and hypoglycemia minimized, by using insulin regimens that supplement insulin in as physiological a way as possible. In patients with normal glucose tolerance, insulin secretion is tightly regulated by the prevailing glucose level (see Figure 4.1). Basal insulin, which is secreted even in the absence of nutritional intake, suppresses hepatic glucose production and maintains normoglycemia in the fasting state. In response to a meal, insulin levels rise and fall precisely to the degree needed to maintain the plasma glucose in a very narrow range (~80-140 mg/dL; 4.5-7.8 mmol/L).

Both basal and nutritional insulin requirements vary considerably throughout the day, as well as from day to day. Nutritional insulin requirements vary primarily depending on the quantity, composition, and timing of food. Basal requirements tend to decrease with exercise and increase with stress or illness. Basal insulin requirements also may increase as the result of the "dawn phenomenon", which has been attributed to morning rises in growth hormone and cortisol levels.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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