Breast Cancer Survivors

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor

Undergoing chemotherapy can be one of the most terrifying things that you go through in your life. One of the most frightening things about chemotherapy is the lack of real information that most people have about it, and the unknown makes it so much more frightening as a result. This eBook, written by a young cancer survivor gives you the real story about what chemo is all about. The most valuable information you can get about chemotherapy is from someone that has already experienced it. This PDF eBook allows you to download and read it as soon as your order it. You can begin your journey of reassurance as soon as you want! Because that's what this is about: chemo does not have to be a terrifying unknown! Other people have gone through it before, and want to help you through it as well! This eBook is the guide through chemo that many people wish they could have had, and now you can have it yourself! Continue reading...

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor Summary


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Author: Nalie Augustin
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Highly Recommended

This is one of the best ebooks I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

Purchasing this book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Diabetes Mellitus and Clinical Aspects of Breast Cancer

Diabetes Mellitus and Breast Cancer Screening Screening mammography has been shown to reduce breast cancer mortality and is recommended by clinical practice guidelines for all women between the ages of 50 and 69 years. With current antidiabetic treatment, many patients with diabetes do not have additional comorbidity and thus may benefit from screening, yet in several countries diabetes may adversely affect attendance to screening mammography. Beckman et al. 38 found that American diabetic patients were less likely to undergo screening mammography, probably due to compromised attitude of their primary care physicians to preventive medicine and to high costs of mammography. Lipscombe et al. 39 investigated mammography rates in a large Canadian cohort, consisting of 69,168 women with diabetes and 663,519 women without diabetes. Although all patients were fully insured, diabetic patients had about one-third lower chances to perform screening mammography. On the other hand, a study from...

Diabetes Mellitus and Breast Cancer Possible Associating Mechanisms

Four major mechanisms may contribute to the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and breast cancer (fig. 2) activation of the insulin pathway, activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 pathway, altered regulation of endogenous sex hormones, altered regulation of adipocytokines. The Insulin Pathway and Breast Cancer Insulin is a polypeptide hormone secreted from pancreatic p-cells in response to elevation in glucose levels 7 . The first step in activation of the insulin pathway is binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (IR). The primary targets for insulin are skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and the liver, however many other tissues, including normal breast tissue and breast cancer, express the IR. The IR is a tyrosine kinase receptor, composed of two extracellular a-subunits and two transmembrane p-subunits. Insulin binding leads to autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the intracellular subunits and thus activates the tyrosine kinase. Once activated, the...

Diabetes Mellitus and Breast Cancer Risk

Different strategies were used in order to assess the association between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer risk. We divided these studies into three categories (1) studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and breast cancer risk (2) studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and breast cancer mortality, and (3) studies of the association between blood levels of insulin resistance markers, such as glucose or insulin and breast cancer risk. Diabetes Mellitus and Breast Cancer Risk Cohort Studies. To our knowledge, 16 cohort studies reported on the association between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer risk reviewed in 25, 26 . These studies vary significantly in sample size (from 800 diabetic patients to more than 460,000), inclusion criteria (all diabetics or only type 2), population (hospitalized or ambulatory, population-based or sample) and years of the study (1965-1996). The major studies will be described in the following section. Two studies...

Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus A Potential Therapy for Breast Cancer

Metformin is a biguanide drug that is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Some of the beneficial effects of metformin have been linked to activation of AMPK in muscle, adipose tissue, and liver. AMPK is a protein kinase which regulates energy metabolism and is activated by an increase in the intracellular ratio of AMP ATP. Upon activation, AMPK phosphorylates a number of effector proteins leading to the activation of ATP-generating pathways, such as glycolysis, and the inhibition of ATP-consuming pathways. Activation of AMPK inhibits cancer cell proliferation through various mechanisms, including TSC2-dependent inhibition of mTOR and phosphorylation of p53. Treatment of breast cancer cells with metformin has been shown to inhibit their growth through the activation of AMPK 52 . In C3H Sn mice, which are susceptible to breast cancer, long-term administration of phenformin reduced the incidence of mammary carcinoma from 80 to 21 53 . In humans, a case-control...

Breast Cancer Risk and Diabetes Mellitus Type

Upper body obesity and the related metabolic disorder type 2 diabetes have been identified as risk factors for breast cancer, and associated with late-stage disease and poor prognosis. Components of the MeS, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, with or without clinically manifest diabetes mellitus type 2, low serum HDL cholesterol and hypertension have all been related to an increased risk of breast cancer 10 . One of the hallmarks of aggressive cancer cells is a high rate of energy-consuming anabolic processes driving the synthesis of lipids, proteins, and DNA. The breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA-1) stabilizes the inactive (phosphorylated) form of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase a, the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing de novo fatty acid biogenesis. Therefore, one mode of action of BRCA-1 is a tumor suppressor activity which depends on its ability to mimicry a cellular low-energy status, which is also known to block tumor cell anabolism and...

Treatment of Breast Cancer in the Diabetic Patient

Several of the well-known complications of diabetes, including nephropathy, neuropathy, heart disease, impaired wound healing and tendency to infections can adversely affect all forms of cancer therapy surgical, radiation, chemotherapy and even hormonal therapy. Diabetes and Surgery for Breast Cancer Diabetes is associated with increased risk of complications following breast cancer surgery. Analysis of 326 patients revealed a strong association between diabetes and wound infection following breast surgery wound infection occurred in 12 of 264 (5 ) non-diabetic patients but in 6 of 44 (14 ) of the diabetic patients 48 . Diabetes is also associated with ipsilateral upper arm dysfunction 5 years following mastectomy 49 . Diabetes and Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer Data regarding efficacy and complications of radiotherapy for breast cancer are limited. However, diabetes is associated with increased risk of early and late complications of radiation. In patients treated for cervical...

Scientific misconduct

An issue that has long been overlooked, due to the high esteem in which scientists in general have been held in public opinion, is the credibility of the data gathering process in research. According to the literature, questionable credibility seems to be fairly prevalent in the scientific community. It is conservatively estimated that one severe case of documented fraud occurs per 100,000 scientists per year, and 1 in 10 audits have provided findings of major deviations (Marshall 2000 Steneck 2000). Cases of scientific misconduct that have led to impaired data credibility and false conclusions cover a broad spectrum, ranging from sloppiness and willful distortion of data to actual data fabrication (Kintisch 2005). The most notable cases of fraud - such as the data fabrication found in an article on high dose chemotherapy for breast cancer printed in a highly renowned medical journal (von Schilling & Herrmann 1995) - have probably led to a large number of casualties (Cooper-Mahkorn

Observational Studies Cancer

Similar observations were made in a case-controlled study from Scotland 42 suggesting that the use of metformin may be associated with reduced risk of cancer (HR 0.79). In line with these observational studies are new experimental data 43 demonstrating that metformin is an AMP kinase-dependent growth inhibitor for breast cancer cells.

Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer A Conclusion

Many studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus type 2 may alter the risk of developing a variety of cancers, and the associations are biologically plausible. One of largest prospective studies worldwide, enrolling 467,922 men and 588,321 women who had no reported history of cancer at the time of enrollment, revealed after 16 years of follow-up that diabetes was significantly associated with fatal colon cancer in men and women, and with PC in men, and significantly associated with liver cancer and bladder cancer. In addition, diabetes was significantly associated with breast cancer in women 61 . These findings strongly suggest that diabetes is an independent predictor of mortality from these cancer entities.

Leg Ulcers Diabetes Neuropathy

Diabetic Ulcers Foot

General practitioner and she was referred to the diabetic foot clinic. She was referred on to the dermatologist because her plantar ulcer was unusually painful. The ulcer was biopsied and proved to be a squamous cell carcinoma. She underwent wide excision, but already had pulmonary, pelvic and lymph node metastases. She underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Treatment Of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

Exclude nondiabetic causes Malignant disease (e.g., bronchogenic carcinoma) Metabolic Toxic (e.g., alcohol) Infective (e.g., HIV infection) Iatrogenic (e.g., isoniazid, vinca alkaloids) Medication related (chemotherapy, HIV treatment) Explanation, support and practical measures, for example, bed cradle to lift bedclothes

Role of Glucose Transporters for the Development of Cancer

Hatanaka 50 hypothesized that transport across the plasma membrane is the first rate-limiting step for sugar metabolism in cells and glucose transport, therefore an important regulator of glucose metabolism in transformed cells. Increased glucose transport in malignant cells is associated with increased expression of GLUT proteins. Transformation of rat fibroblasts by ras and scr oncogenes resulted in elevated glucose transport and increased GLUT1 expression 51 due to ras- and scr-responsive enhancer elements within the Slc2a1 (GLUT1 encoding gene) promoter 52 . In carcinoma cell lines (e.g. Caco-2 cells and breast cancer cells) transformation resulted in increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 while other transporters like GLUT2 and GLUT5 were repressed 53 . In addition, Rogers et al. 54 described GLUT12 to be expressed in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) and detected the transporter in an intracellular compartment when cells were grown under serum-free conditions. This finding was...

Effects of HRT on Risk of Developing Diabetes

In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a large randomized placebo-controlled study of hormone replacement therapy (CEE and MPA) for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a lower risk for the development of DM2 in women on HRT was also seen again in a post hoc analysis. As compared with those women on placebo (cumulative incidence of type 2 DM 4.2 ), women on HRT (cumulative incidence 3.5 ) were 21 less likely to develop treated diabetes as defined by the self-report of diabetes treated with oral agents or insulin over 5.6 years. This finding held true after adjustment for common associates of diabetes such as BMI and waist circumference (62). As there was a significant decrease in HOMA-IR at 1 year, it is possible that HRT may reduce insulin resistance. However, this was no longer significant at 3 years. Given that the use of combined HRT in this study was associated with an increase in coronary heart disease, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and breast cancer, this regimen is...

Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin Resistance Linked to Colorectal Cancer

A cohort study on the impact of diabetes within a large randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial of 3,759 patients with high-risk stage II and stage III colon cancer was carried out in 2003 at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Statistical Center, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA 49 . Patients with diabetes and high-risk stage II and stage III colon cancer experienced a significantly higher rate of overall mortality and cancer recurrence. Median survival was 6.0 and 11.3 years for diabetics and non-diabetics, respectively.

The Need to Understand Glucose Metabolism in Normal and Aberrant Tissues for Diagnostic Considerations

The metabolomics of cancer cells with respect to glucose utilization are represented by the same key enzymes, such as hexokinase II 8 , and increased expression of a variety of enzymes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, as shown for human breast cancer cells forming brain metastases 9 . Most interestingly, although these cells do not only increase the enzymes for conversion of glucose to lactic acid, but also activate enzymes involved in the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, these cells concomitantly show enhanced activation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the glutathione system, which can minimize production of ROS from enhanced oxidation metabolism without losing the capacity to produce enough macromolecules and chemical energy for rapid self-renewal. Within this context it can be hypothesized - as put forward in part by Lu 10 - that cancer cells developing an invasive phenotype show decreased levels of ROS. volume, pp. 71-83 ....

Peripheral Arterial Disease

It is important for the clinician to understand that 90 of patients with symptomatic peripheral vascular disease also have concomitant coronary disease with relative 5-year mortality rates with peripheral arterial disease being greater than Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer, according to data from the American Cancer Society.

Methodological Issues in Gene Profiling With Kidney Tissue

To date, the feasibility of finding diagnostic and outcome predictor biomarker genes of human diseases based on gene expression profiling have been demonstrated for various malignancies, including acute leukemia (6), breast cancer (6), and lung cancer (7). In comparison with studies on tumor material, the application of micro-array studies to human DN poses different challenges (8). Highly sensitive and

Which medicines are used in the treatment of diabetic dyslipidaemia

Finally, treatment with oestrogen replacement therapy in postmeno-pausal women is no longer recommended for the reduction of lipids and cardiovascular risk, because of the revelation that the cardiovascular risk actually increases initially, together with the risk for breast cancer.

Use of FLabeled Fluoro DeoxyDGlucose as Diagnostic Tool

By now, FDG-PET has become the method of choice for the staging and restaging of many of the most common cancers, including lymphoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. FDG-PET has also become extremely valuable in monitoring the response to therapeutic drugs in many cancers. New PET agents, such as fluorothymidine and acetate, have also shown promise in the evaluation of response to therapy and in the staging of prostate cancer 57 .

Another Fluke Disease

If the fluke eggs and other stages go through their development in your breast it can become breast cancer. If it is in the prostate it can become prostate cancer. And so on. Each different kind of cancer means the developmental stages of the intestinal fluke are present there. Only one more thing is needed to bring about an avalanche of reproduction, so that hundreds of little larvae turn into hundreds more in a short time a growth factor. It makes them multiply and your cells are similarly affected. This growth factor, ortho-phospho-tyrosine (and possibly, also, epidermal growth factor and insulin-dependent growth factor) really begins your cancer.

Data From Randomized Clinical Trials

To address this issue, a large randomized trial, the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was designed to assess the role of HRT for primary prevention of CVD (7,86). The WHI was a randomized controlled primary prevention trial in 16,608 healthy postmenopausal women aged 55-79 (mean age 63.7) years, based on oral combined continuous HRT (CCE 0.625 mg plus MPA 2.5 mg) daily compared with placebo. Another arm of the study, which is still continuing, addresses the effects of estrogen alone in women with previous hysterectomy. Although originally designed to run for 8.5 years, the study was stopped early, after 5.2 years follow-up, based on an assessment of greater risk than benefit. Although its primary outcome was nonfatal MI and coronary death, the trial was stopped as a result of a significant but small increased risk of invasive breast cancer (8 cases per 10,000 women), which exceeded the stopping boundaries. This excess risk increased with duration of treatment. For CVD there was an...

Rationale For Early Screening For Diabetic Kidney Disease

Primary prevention of diabetic nephropathy is probably possible with rigorous glucose and blood pressure control 1-3 . Indeed, many people at risk for type 2 diabetes could even prevent the development of diabetes 4, 5 . However, screening for diabetic renal disease falls within the scope of secondary prevention. The goal of such screening is not to prevent the appearance of renal damage but to detect it early enough that its course can be favorably deflected. Thus, at first approximation such screening has the same general goals as mammography for breast cancer or fecal occult blood detection for colon cancer.

Standard Treatment

Conventional medical treatments of cancer are generally aggressive and designed to eradicate cancerous cells. They include surgical removal of the tumor mass or affected organ, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite the many claims of advances in cancer treatment, the cure often seems worse than the disease. Indeed, an analysis published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that improvements in the so-called five-year survival rate in cancer patients had more to do with better (earlier) diagnosis than with successful cures.

Isoflavones and coronary heart disease

This lack of efficacy has been attributed to the fact that synthetic oestrogens are associated with increased likelihood of blood clot formation and a rise in circulating concentrations of triglycerides and the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP), which are independent risk factors for CHD (Manson et al., 2003). Of concern is evidence from recent large-scale studies that demonstrate, conclusively, that HRT is associated with increased incidence of endometrial and breast cancer (Beral et al., 1999). Lack of efficacy of HRT with respect to CHD progression, and clear evidence of increased risk of hormone-dependent cancers, has led to interest in the search for alternative therapies to counteract this loss of natural oestrogens at the menopause.

Home Health Care and Nursing Homes

With an emphasis on shorter hospital stays, many people today are turning to home health care for a variety of reasons. Home health care services include nursing care and physical, respiratory, occupational, or speech therapy chemotherapy nutritional guidance personal care such as bathing or dressing and homemaker care. Home health care can include health professionals who help you when you are bedridden with a long illness or housebound for a short period. They may provide blood testing or send a nurse into your home to administer medicines and other treatments. Home health care workers include professionals, trained aides who help professionals, and volunteers.

Body Cleanup

30 Breast cancer cases show titanium, zirconium, benzalkonium, bismuth and antimony accumulation in the breast. How can propyl alcohol in shampoo get into your body in significant amounts The skin is more absorbent than we realize, and time and time again I see cancer victims who have gone off every body product except their favorite shampoo. They harbor propyl alcohol until they make that final sacrifice. It is better to switch shampoos than to not need any due to radiation and chemotherapy

Changes In Brain

Major advances in understanding of neuropathy have been achieved during last couple of decades primarily because of development and from results of studies of animal models that mimic human neuropathic pain (50,51). First animal models utilized nerve trauma such as constriction (52) or partial nerve cut (53) or nerve root cut (50), as the mechanisms of nerve insult, however, other disease processes were utilized to induce nerve injury, such as diabetes (1,55-57) and chemotherapy (58). On the basis of these studies, a wealth

Vitamin D

Alterations in vitamin D levels have also been reported to be a causative factor in certain cancers. The actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and a number of polymorphisms in the VDR gene have been identified. VDR polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk and may be associated with disease progression.

What Is Cancer

Cancer refers to the growth of abnormal cells, which can displace the normal cells composing tissues. Cancers are often distinguished by their ability to metastasize, spreading to and attacking other organs. There are many different types of cancer, but all arouse fear because of how they cut life expectancy and because of the pain associated with cancer and with conventional therapies (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy). Although some cancers affect children, they are usually age-related the older you are, the greater your risk of cancer. In general, cancers take years to develop, and many cancers go undiagnosed until autopsy.

Fourniers Gangrene

This is a syndrome of synergistic, polymicrobial, necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum, scrotum, and penis. The prevalence of coexisting diabetes ranges from 32 to 60 (45,46). Other predisposing factors include alcoholism, steroid use, cancer chemotherapy, and acquired imnunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (47).


10 Vona-Davis L, Howard-McNatt M, Rose DP Adiposity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in breast cancer. Obes Rev 2007 8 395-408. 11 Brunnet J, Vazquez-Martin A, Colomer R, Grana-Suarez B, Martin-Castillo B, Menendez JA BRCA1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase The metabolic syndrome of breast cancer. Mol Carcinog 2007 9 12-16. 12 Rose DP, Komninou D, Stephenson GD Obesity, adipocytokines, and insulin resistance in breast cancer. Obes Rev 2004 5 153-165. 13 Garmendia ML, Pereira A, Alvarado ME, Atalah E Relation between insulin resistance and breast cancer among Chilean women. Ann Epidemiol 2007 17 403-409. 15 Larsson SC, Mantzoros CS, Wolk A Diabetes melli-tus and risk of breast cancer a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2007 121 856-862. 16 Sellers TA, Jensen LE, Vierkant RA, Fredercksen ZS, Brandt KR, Giuliano AR, Pankratz VS, Cerhan JR, Vachon CM Association of diabetes with mammo-graphic breast density and breast cancer in the Minnesota breast cancer family study. Cancer Causes Control...

Glucose Transporters

However, cancer cells are not only able to take up high amounts of glucose under hyperglycemic conditions. There are medical findings that even at fasting glucose concentrations tumor cells demonstrated an increased glucose uptake. One of the mechanisms proposed for the elevated glucose consumption in malignant cells is the overexpression of glucose transporters. There are various reports that overexpression of GLUT-1 transporters have been detected in different tumor cell lines 19, 20 . Already in the early 1990s, Brown et al. 21 described in an immunohistochemical study high expression levels of GLUT-1 transporters in breast cancer cells and their descended lymph node metastasis. One common feature in all these studies is that the healthy surrounding tissue did not show any or only very little expression of GLUT-1. This is of great importance, because GLUT-1 transporters have the highest affinity for glucose of all GLUTs, and therefore raise the ability of these cancer cells to have...

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