Have you ever wondered what Biofeedback is all about? Uncover these unique information on Biofeedback! Are you in constant pain? Do you wish you could ever just find some relief? If so, you are not alone. Relieving chronic pain can be difficult and frustrating.
Biofeedback is a technique in which a machine detects an internal body function like your heart rate or your body temperature that's supposed to be involuntary. When you're aware of the function, you can attempt to alter it. Experiments with biofeedback techniques show that people have more control over so-called involuntary bodily functions than they realize. Biofeedback has been shown to relieve stress in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a significant fall in hemoglobin A1c, muscle tension, and average blood glucose. A study in Diabetes Care in May 1991 found that type 1 patients who did biofeedback had significantly more normal blood glucose levels than a comparable group that didn't undergo biofeedback. You can find a practitioner at the Web site of the Association of Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, www.aapb.org.
Incontinence may require physical medicine and biofeedback approaches to enhance rectal sensation, and to strengthen the external anal sphincter. In the presence of a significant pudendal neuropathy or sensory loss, biofeedback may not work and the patient may have a better quality of life with a descending colostomy.
A variety of studies over the past two decades support the notion that improving stress management or coping skills can improve self-care, metabolic outcomes and quality of life. For example, several studies of people with type 2 diabetes generally report improved glucose tolerance and reduced long-term hyperglycaemia following biofeedback-assisted relaxation training (BART) - 0. Evidence for the effectiveness of BART in people with type 1 diabetes is less conclusive. While several studies11,12 reported positive effects of BART and related treatments for those with type 1 diabetes, others13-15 found no such benefits. Surwit and Feinglos15 suggest that sympathetic nervous system activity may be altered only in those with type 2 diabetes, making these individuals more sensitive than those with
Evidence from animal models also suggests a role for stress in the onset of type 2 diabetes (45). Ineffective coping (e.g., avoidance, denial, detachment, anger) has been shown to be associated with poorer metabolic control in diabetes and adaptive coping (e.g., active problem solving and ability to obtain social support) with a stress-buffering role (46), highlighting the role of patient perceptions of stressful events. It is unclear whether relaxation training (e.g., biofeedback) produces glycemic benefits in type 2 diabetes (47). Generally, there is a paucity of studies on stress in type 2 diabetes.
If these therapies aren't effective, ask for a referral to a pain clinic. There are also less conventional methods to treat the pain. Biofeedback training, hypnosis, relaxation exercises, acupressure, acupuncture, and use of a TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) unit have all been effective for some people. Incontinence, or urine leakage, can be treated by training in bladder control and timed urination using a planned bladder-emptying program. Rather than waiting until your bladder feels full, you can try urinating every 2 hours. Men sometimes find it easier to urinate sitting down. Applying pressure over the bladder may also be helpful. If these steps don't work, oral medication may be needed. Or you may need to use a catheter or have surgery. Fecal incontinence (passing stool involuntarily) is treated in a similar way, with medicine for diarrhea and biofeedback training.
Anxiety disorders in some people with diabetes may be responsive to psychotherapy and related treatments. Studies10 of people with type 2 diabetes report improved glucose tolerance and reduced long-term hyper-glycaemia after biofeedback-assisted relaxation training (BART). The effectiveness of BART for those with type 1 diabetes is less clear-cut, although some studies68 have reported positive findings.
At one time, insulin was the only drug given to the patient with T1DM. Today, there are some new drugs that can assist insulin in controlling the blood glucose. Chapter 12 looks into these drugs and some promising treatments for people with T1DM, such as acupuncture and biofeedback.
Anorectal function can be evaluated by anorectal manometry and tests of continence for solids and liquids. Anorectal manometry gives information about the maximum basal sphincter pressure, the maximum squeeze sphincter pressure, and the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (inflation of a balloon in the rectum causes a reflex relaxation of the internal anal sphincter). Continence for solids and liquids can be directly assessed simulating the stress of stools with a solid sphere or with rectally infused saline. Unfortunately, these tests do not appear to be very helpful in making therapeutic decisions. Appropriate treatment of incontinence in diabetics includes optimizing blood sugar control and biofeedback therapy. Surgical intervention should be reserved for cases refractory to medical treatment or for those patients with rectocele or obstetrical injury (95). The clinical outcome of surgical treatment of incontinence is far from uniform and caution is advisable before recommending it.