Species of Plants Reported to Be Used Traditionally to Treat Diabetes

Phaseolus mungo L. Parkia speciosa Hassk. Africa, India Pueraria lobata Willd. China Ohwi. Part Used Comments about Activity Phaseolus vulgaris L. Africa, Europe, Seed Pithecellobium dulce India Leaf Pongamia pinnata L. India Flower Pierre Prosopis farcta Macbride Middle East Root Pterocarpus marsupium Africa, India, S. Wood, bark Extracts decrease glucose level in blood. Increase in peripheral utilization of glucose and release of insulin in a way that differs from...

Insulinomimetic Agents

The need to inject insulin to bypass digestion of the peptide by gastrointestinal enzymes and increase its bioavailability is a major drawback to its acceptability. The insulin receptor is a cell surface protein, so it is theoretically possible that compounds will be discovered that are absorbed orally and can bind and activate the insulin receptor.71 This might be by binding to the insulin-binding sites on the extracellular domain of the insulin receptor or by activating its intracellular...

Table of Contents

Introduction to Diabetes Plants Used in the Treatment of Monique S.J. Simmonds and Melanie-Jayne R. Howes Preclinical and Clinical Methods for Evaluating Antidiabetic Activity of Plants 83 In Vitro Models for Assessing Antidiabetic Amala Soumyanath nee Raman and Sairavee Srijayanta Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Tribal Venugopal P. Menon and P. Stanely Mainzen Prince Traditional Chinese and Kampo Masayuki Yoshikawa and Hisashi Matsuda Treating Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus from a Western...

Species of Plants Reported to Be Used Traditionally to Treat

Urticaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Rubus strigosus Michx. Rubus ulmifolius Schott. Sarcopoterium spinosum Middle East Root Spach Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol C. America Leaf, stem Acacia catechu Brandis India, S.E. Asia Stem Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. Africa, India, Seed Australia Acacia modesta Wall India Seed Reduces blood glucose Ivorra et al., 1989 Used to treat diabetes Lust, 1986 Reduces blood glucose level in blood of alloxan-treated rats Lemus et al., 1999 Contains triterpenes...

Molecular mechanisms of insulin action

Images Glucose Glut4 Insulin

Insulin exerts its effects on target organs liver, muscle, fat by binding to a cell surface receptor and activating a number of intracellular signaling cascades.7,8 This is an area of intense scientific scrutiny because it is hoped that understanding the mechanism of action of insulin will reveal new drug targets that may be amenable to manipulation by small, nonpeptide agonists. The intracellular signaling cascades activated are, to some extent, tissue specific one mechanism whereby insulin...

Insulin Replacement

Insulin deficiency is logically treated by replacing the absent insulin peptide. This is the mainstay of treatment for patients with the absolute insulin deficiency found in type 1 diabetes and is frequently necessary for many patients with type 2 diabetes when they fail to respond to oral drug therapy. Exogenous insulin therapy, given by subcutaneous injection, does not closely match physiological release of insulin. Hypoglycemia may occur when a mismatch occurs between carbohydrate intake and...

Selection of species

It is clear that a case can be made for further research on these potentially antidiabetic species. However, how should the plants to study be selected Marles and Farnsworth 1995 suggested that to accelerate research on the antidiabetic activity of plants, five criteria could be used to prioritize the selection of species Traditional use in one or more countries Experimentally determined hypoglycemic activity Lack of detailed information on hypoglycemic constituents Experimental evidence for...

Background

The Ebers Papyrus written in approximately 1550 b.c. provides the earliest documentation about the use of plants in the treatment of conditions associated with diabetes Bailey and Day, 1989 . In India, the early Ayurvedic texts such as the Sushruta Samhita and the Charaka Samhita written in the 4th to 5th century b.c. describe the use of about 760 and 500 species of medicinal plants, respectively, including those prescribed for conditions such as glycosuria, polyphagia, and polyuria associated...

Where Do We Go New Antidiabetic Plants

Diabetes mellitus diabetes is a disease of worldwide significance and increasing prevalence. Plant materials have played an important role in the traditional treatment of diabetes, particularly the type II non-insulin-dependent form. In many regions of the world, herbal remedies continue to be more accessible and affordable than conventional drugs and represent the first line of treatment available to a diabetes patient. Concurrently, within societies with well-developed, modern health care...

Where do we go next

Gentianales

When prioritizing species that need further study, the criteria used by Marles and Farnsworth 1995 can still apply, but more use should be made of taxonomic information about the relationship among plants' families and genera. Molecular data have enabled significant advances to be made in understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among different plant families Chase, 2005 . Species used to treat diabetes can be found distributed throughout the plant kingdom Figure 2.1 . However, some...