Aerobics For Fitness


Are You Looking For Effective Ways To Get Fit? Doing the same thing and not getting effective results is called insanity. You dont want to be labeled insane, do you? When you are exercising, you want to be able to see results. Since you are not, its time for some new strategies.

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Body Groove Workout Summary


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Developing And Sticking to an Exercise Plan

I Aerobic exercise is moderate exercise done for a long duration it i Anaerobic exercise is a short burst of exercise during which glucose is used without oxygen. It's much less efficient and is too intense to be sustained. Anaerobic exercise increases muscle strength and stamina. Whereas running is aerobic exercise, sprinting is anaerobic exercise. Lifting 10 pounds repeatedly is aerobic exercise, and lifting 125 pounds once is anaerobic exercise. In the following sections, I explain how to incorporate both of these types of exercise into your child's (or your own) program I start with aerobic activity and finish with a great method for anaerobic exercise weight training.

Effects Of Exercise In Prediabetic Syndromes Insulin Resistance Syndrome

The insulin resistance syndrome has been recognized as an important new risk factor associated with premature coronary artery disease. There seems to be a genetic trait because the underlying abnormality can also be demonstrated in offsprings of parents affected by this syndrome (49, 50). Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of triglycerides combined with low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and impaired fibrinolytic activity, are detected with a higher frequency in these individuals than expected. There is also considerable evidence that impaired aerobic exercise capacity is an important component of this syndrome. Muscle biopsies obtained from these individuals exhibit a reduction of mitochondrial and capillary density, not totally dissimilar from patients with congestive heart failure (51). It has been speculated that the limited aerobic capacity of skeletal muscles may induce these patients to select a more sedentary...

Anaerobic Strengthening Program

For most people, and probably for you, regular aerobic exercise will help to control your weight and to reduce your risk of diabetes. However, if you want to add an anaerobic strengthening program to your usual exercise, start with relatively light weights, such as two to four pounds, depending on your size and strength. Use the small weights and increase the number of repetitions of each movement (such as flexing your biceps).

What is the definition of exercise and what are its characteristics

In aerobic exercise, consumed energy concerns the oxidation of glucose through the Krebs cycle and the respiratory chain, as well as of free fatty acids (aerobic endurance exercise). In this type of exercise, many groups of muscles contract at the same time, for example during walking, running, swimming, cycling, playing football, etc.

Non Pharmacologic Measures

The mnemonic MEDEM (monitoring, education, diet, exercise, medications) can be used to represent the major elements of diabetes management (29). SMBG is a very useful tool in the management of diabetes, the performance of which is associated with better glycemic control (12). Patients should be encouraged to monitor their blood glucose levels regularly, and also to maintain a logbook, which is reviewed by the physician, with feedback given to the patient. Diabetes education, dietary counseling and exercise are effective in ethnic minority groups and should be promoted vigorously as indispensable adjuncts to pharmacological agents. Using this approach, Ziemer et al. (47) obtained hemoglobin A1c reduction of 2 in 6 to 12 months. Referral to certified diabetes educators and dieticians is worthwhile in achieving this goal. Exercise programs, which should be tailored to individual patient's physical condition improves insulin sensitivity and lipid profile and also reduces obesity and blood...

Effects Of Exercise In Diabetics Metabolic Effects

Regular physical activity is associated with changes in body composition with a reduction in body fat, increase in muscle mass, and maximal oxygen uptake in healthy individuals insulin sensitivity is closely correlated to these factors. Corresponding results are obtained in patients with diabetes type 2 who engage in a structured exercise program. Improvements of insulin sensitivity are independently correlated to a reduction in abdominal obesity and an increase in muscle cross-sectional area (10). The benefits of exercise, however, are only maintained for short periods of time they attenuate 3 to 6 days after the last exercise session stressing the importance of persistent lifestyle changes (11-13). By adding resistance training to aerobic exercise muscle mass may be increased, particularly in elderly patients who tend to loose muscle mass as a result of aging (10,14).

Stress Testing And Exercise Tolerance

The intensity of the aerobic workout can be monitored by tracking the pulse with a monitor. Target heart rates vary from 60 to 90 of the maximum heart rate with slightly lower rates of 55-79 for those with autonomic neuropathy, hypertensive responses, obesity, and deconditioning. The maximum heart rate is 220 minus the age. The use of

Exercise Programs for People with Diabetes

The best activities for you are vigorous aerobic exercises. Aerobic exercises use the large muscle groups, and improve stamina and overall health. Ask your diabetes educator for more information about aerobic exercise, or take a look at Exercise & Diabetes , a pamphlet-workbook by Jean Kapetanios (order from Area Health and Education Center, 81 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605) or The Diabetic's Sports and Exercise Book by June Biermann and Barbara Toohey.

Nervous System Complications

Autonomic neuropathy can also cause problems with blood pressure regulation, and you can get light-headed with exercise. Dehydration can worsen the problem, so it is important to drink adequate fluids. The heart rate is often increased even at rest, and this means that you cannot rely on taking your pulse rate to monitor your exercise level. It may be best to judge the intensity of your exercise on your perception if you think the exercise is somewhat hard, this is equivalent to moderate exercise (see the Borg perceived exertion scale in the Aerobic Exercise section earlier in this chapter).

Physical activity in the treatment of type diabetes

Although relatively little research has been conducted on the impact of intensity of intervention on treatment outcomes, McAuley et al. (2002) compared a modest treatment (similar to current standard treatment programmes) and a more intensive treatment programme. The more intensive treatment programme produced a more significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (23 per cent, P 0.006 (intensive intervention group) versus 9 per cent P 0.23 (modest standard intervention group and for aerobic fitness (11 per cent increase in intensive group, P 0.02 versus 1 per cent in the modest group, P 0.94). The more intensive treatment included goals to achieve both greater dietary change than the modest treatment group and the 1990 ACSM guidelines for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. The differences in response of these groups and the lack of improvement in insulin sensitivity for standard treatment shown in this study highlight the significant challenge ahead...

Physical activity and type diabetes

A number of reviews have shown that programmes that include a prescription of exercise involving 60-85 per cent VO2 max lasting 30-60min three to four times per week for 6-12 weeks achieve significant improvements in VO2 max (ADA ACSM, 1997 Chipkin et al., 2001). Other studies have also shown that diabetic patients have lower aerobic fitness than sedentary non-diabetic individuals, which would increase the magnitude of improvement in fitness with regular physical activity or exercise, but will require a gentle progression in exercise intensity, duration and frequency from the sedentary state.

Management Of The

Exercise training results in preferential loss of fat stores from central regions of the body (103). Aerobic exercise training has been shown to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and plasma triglycerides and increase HDL cholesterol.

Guidelines For Exercise

Generally, aerobic exercises, such as swimming and walking, are preferred. Resistance training, although beneficial, can be somewhat hazardous in patients with orthopedic or vascular problems, although properly designed resistance programs can be beneficial. Light weight repetitions are very effective and can be used extremely well to maintain tone. 1. Regular aerobic exercise reduces the dosage or need for insulin or oral hyperglycemic agents.

Fad Exercise Programs

The appeal of fad exercise programs is no less than that of fad diets. An entire exercise industry has developed that includes exercise tapes, books, workout programs, specialized centers to facilitate yoga (combat yoga, sweat yoga), strength training, weight training, jazz exercise, step aerobics, spinning, and almost every type of exercise equipment imaginable for home gyms, bedrooms, and traveling.

Exerting enough effort

In the recent past, exercise physiologists said that you needed to make sure that you monitored your exercise intensity by periodically checking your heart rate. Your exercise heart rate was supposed to be based on your age. The usual formula to figure this out is to take the number 220, subtract your age, and multiply that number by 60 to 75 percent to get the recommended exercise heart rate for aerobic exercise. (See the sidebar What are aerobic and anaerobic exercise if you're not sure what aerobic exercise is.) Now studies have shown that people can sustain aerobic exercise at higher heart rates. Perhaps the best way to know whether you're meeting your exercise goals is to use the Perceived Exertion Scale described in the sidebar Checking the value of your exercise.

Proof That Lifestyle Matters The Diabetes Prevention Program

Don't you already know a lot about diets and exercise programs Unless you've been living in a cave, cut off from all communication, you probably do. You have, like the rest of us, probably been flooded with advertisements and party talk about how to eat healthy and lose weight. Weight loss programs abound. In addition to the potential health benefits of weight loss, its cosmetic appeal has spawned a multibillion-dollar weight loss industry that includes diet books and programs, food supplements, over-the-counter and prescription medications, stomach-restriction surgery, and plastic surgery. It also includes exercise books, tapes, videos, television shows, and equipment Jazzercise step and bicycle aerobics yoga exercise combat yoga sweat yoga and Tae Bo. Indeed, health clubs have grown in parallel with the size of our waists.

The Patient with Myocardial Infarction

Before embarking on any exercise-based rehabilitation program, it is important to establish that exercise is safe and to quantify the level of cardior-espiratory reserve. An exercise stress test under the supervision of a trained health professional clarifies these issues. Assessing functional reserve allows exercise programs to be tailored to the individual and allows progress to be measured. It is also important to identify factors that limit the ability to exercise, as some of these, for example foot deformities or unsuitable footwear, can be rectified. Aerobic exercise (in which muscular effort is sustained by oxygen) and not anaerobic exercise should be engaged in. In practice, exertion that leads to muscular aches and pains on the following day should be avoided. New guidelines from the Australian National Institute of Health (1996) recommend the accumulation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity over the course of most, preferably all days of the week. If the...

Finding an Exercise That Works for

If you have peripheral neuropathy, avoid exercises that traumatize the feet, such as running, jogging, and high-impact aerobics. You may also be at a higher risk for injuring soft tissues and joints because you may not be able to feel when you've overstretched or overdone it. If you have autonomic neuropathy, do not exercise until your provider and perhaps an exercise specialist have given you the okay. Your body may not be able to compensate for the exertion of exercise. You may be at high risk for dehydration and low blood pressure. Your aerobic capacity the ability of your heart, lungs, and blood vessels to support your muscles while they work and your ability to achieve maximum heart rate may also be limited by neuropathy, so you may have to stick to activities of low in-

Diet Exercise And Alzheimers Disease

We have reported that a 6-month lifestyle intervention resulted in physical and cognitive improvement in a sample of Japanese-Americans with impaired glucose tolerance (98). In brief, participants were randomized to receive either a low-fat diet paired with aerobic exercise (1 h three times per week active treatment group) or a typical American diet paired with stretching (control group). Relative to the control intervention, the active intervention reduced body mass index and increased the proportion of story information recalled after a delay. When we compared treatment-related changes in memory with treatment-related changes in glucose-stimulated plasma insulin levels (acquired at the end of a standard oral glucose tolerance test), improved story recall was associated with lower glucose-stimulated insulin levels, suggesting that memory improvement increased in conjunction with lower insulin levels (a marker of insulin effectiveness). Thus, diet and exercise can regulate both...

Chronic Heart Failure

A low-salt diet (usually 2 g) with carbohydrate content tailored to the severity of diabetes is appropriate. It is rarely necessary to restrict salt to such a degree that the patient's diet is unpalatable nor is it ordinarily necessary to restrict water intake. Unless there is active and potentially dangerous demand ischemia or exercise-induced arrhythmias, physical activity need not be curtailed other than as dictated by symptoms. Indeed, regular aerobic exercise should be encouraged, and organized exercise conditioning programs may be beneficial. Such programs have not been convincingly shown to enhance cardiac function, but they increase exercise tolerance and have been reported to improve endothelial function. In diabetic patients, they offer the additional benefits of weight loss and enhanced control of blood glucose. Of course, smoking cessation is imperative. Smoking has specific, deleterious effects in heart failure because of vasoconstriction and reduced oxygen-carrying...


Nowadays, as the planet is quickly developing, the activity rate in cities is lower than in rural areas. Agriculture, especially in poorer areas, still demands intensive labor. In cities and developed rural areas, technology has replaced intensive physical labor except in the poorest sectors of society. City culture favors spatial body control, discouraging movement, even if spontaneously prompted. Little movements in everyday life have been reduced to a minimum we prefer lifts to stairs we press a button on the remote control to change TV channels and so forth. City distances and strict timetables induce automotive transportation and discourage walking. Such reduction of movement has been occurring progressively over the last 40 years (21). Although high- and middle-income sectors can afford to participate in voluntary physical activities such as aerobics, team sports, and dancing, it is not clear that this activity compensates for lack of movement throughout the day.

Whats My Target

Heart rate, this gives you the lower and upper limits of your heart rate during an aerobic workout. For example, if you are 40 years old, your maximum heart rate is 180 (220 - 40 180). If your resting heart rate is 75, you would have a heart rate target range of 128 to 149 (see below), to be working at 50 to 70 of your aerobic capacity. none at all. Sometimes once you get going, you will feel better and will go the whole way. However, if you start an aerobic workout and feel increasingly worse, slow down. If you think you are having a low blood glucose reaction, stop and check your blood glucose. If this is not possible, treat your symptoms and check your blood glucose as soon as you can.

Why bother

Many people avoid exercise because it is uncomfortable, takes time, or they feel embarrassed or unskilled. There are, however, great benefits from even small amounts of increased activity without the necessity for 'aerobics'. Physical activity and exercise are positive aspects ofhealth - they generally involve doing something constructive. Activity is for everyone our bodies are made to move and unless we keep moving the capacity for physical functioning becomes greatly reduced. Indeed many of the concerns associated with growing older are quite often more to do with inactivity. It is not uncommon for people who are older or overweight to think that because they cannot run six miles or do an advanced level of aerobics, anything

Lifting Weights

Lift Dumbbells Over Your Head

Weight training, which uses lighter weights, can be a form of aerobic exercise. Because the weights are light, they can be moved for prolonged periods of time. The result is improved cardiovascular fitness along with strengthening of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones. Weight training is an excellent way to protect and strengthen a joint that is beginning to develop some discomfort. Weight training may be good for the days that you do not do your aerobic exercise, or you can add it for a few minutes after you finish your activity. Weight training is also good for working on a particular group of muscles that you feel is weak. Very often, these muscles are in the back. Weight-training exercises can isolate and strengthen each muscle. If you do a lot of aerobic exercise that involves the legs, you may want to use upper body weight training only. I can tell you from personal experience that you not only feel a stronger upper body, but your ability to do your usual exercise is...


Brisk walking, heavy housework (scrubbing, spring cleaning), heavy gardening (digging), heavy DIY (sawing, mixing cement), football, tennis, cycling, swimming, aerobics, all at a level to produce some breathlessness and a feeling of warmth, working as a labourer, roofer or refuse collector Sport and exercise at a level to induce sweating and breathlessness, e.g. squash, running, football, rugby, swimming, tennis, aerobics, cycling, gym work, any work or occupation involving frequent climbing, lifting, carrying, e.g. mining, forestry


Exercise training raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, and leads to a 20 to 40 increase in insulin sensitivity by enhancing insulin action in skeletal muscles (10). Therefore, all diabetic patients should be encouraged to engage in 30 minutes of modest aerobic exercise (such as brisk walking, aerobics, swimming, or bicycling) three to four times per week. The intensity should be gauged to produce an increase in pulse rate to 60 to 70 of maximum, which can be calculated as 220 minus age. This level of exercise is referred to as conversational exercise because it is not intense enough to prevent the patient from conversing with a partner during the workout.


Newer technologies, such as locally delivered ionizing radiation (brachy-therapy) to prevent or reduce in-stent restenosis and the use of gene-based therapy to promote neovascularization in high-risk diabetics with CAD are being explored actively. Nevertheless, we must not lose sight of the more ''traditional'' lifestyle modification interventions (weight loss, regular aerobic exercise, smoking cessation) and aggressive, multifaceted medical therapy directed toward optimized glycemic control, management of hypertension and dyslipidemia, and other secondary prevention strategies all of which, in the aggregate, are critical to enhancing improved event-free survival. This is especially important in the diabetic patient with established CAD however, the influence of aggressive primary prevention in the ''at-risk'' diabetic is equally compelling.


Try as we might, only an elite few will ever win the Tour de France or even the local 10-K foot race. People simply vary widely in their ability to perform aerobic exercise. New work with rats now suggests that individuals with a low tolerance for aerobic exercise may have a lot more to worry about than just their inability to run fast and long. The same underlying defect that reduces aerobic capacity may also predispose a person to a witch's brew of medical problems that could increase the possibility of heart attacks and strokes. On page 418, a research team including Ulrik Wisloff of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Sonia Najjar of the Medical College of Ohio in Toledo, and Steven Britton of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, reports that rats that have been selectively bred to have reduced capacity for aerobic exercise show obesity, resistance to the hormone insulin (a sign of type II diabetes), and high blood pressure, all symptoms of the...

Before You Begin

Be sure your plan takes into account different situations. For example, if it is too hot or too cold, consider walking at a local mall or around your house. One approach to exercise is the lifetime activity model, where you accumulate a daily total of 30 minutes of moderately intense activity. Another approach is to walk each day for a set number of steps or length of time. The third is a planned aerobic program. Types of exercises can include aerobics classes or videotapes, swimming, dancing, jogging, or cycling.

Exercising Safely

If you decide to do an aerobic activity program, plan your workout sessions to include 5 to 10 minutes of warm-up exercises and gentle stretching. Follow this with at least 20 to 30 minutes of aerobic activity. The aerobic activity should rev you up and get your heart pumping and blood flowing but should not be so intense as to cause shortness of breath, weakness, or intense pain. One easy guideline to remember is that, during your workout, you should still be able to carry on a conversation with your workout partner. Follow the aerobic activity with 5 to 10 minutes of cool-down exercises and stretching. Regular aerobic exercise, which keeps your body moving,

The Best of the Rest

Try yoga to increase your flexibility. Try aerobics classes, especially if you like to dance. Community and senior centers may have equipment available or offer classes that are free or reasonably priced. Try a trial membership at a health club convenient to your home. You could try out their machines to see if there are any you would use at home. You could rekindle your love of tennis, squash, or volleyball. Make an aerobic challenge out of washing the windows or sweeping the deck. When it comes to your fitness, the old saying use it or lose it is true