Diabetic retinopathy is very common and affects nearly all patients with type 1 diabetes after 20 years of having diabetes. Reassuringly, this patient's retinopathy is mild and does not currently require ophthalmological referral. She requires annual screening and referral

Criteria for referral to ophthalmology

Criteria for referral to ophthalmology

Patients should be referred to the ophthalmologist for any of the following criteria:

• An unexplained drop in visual acuity

• There are hard exudates within 1 disc diameter of the fovea

• Macular oedema is present

• There are unexplained retinal findings

• Pre-proliferative or more advanced (severe) retinopathy is present to an ophthalmologist should be made if she fulfils any of the points listed on Table 40.2. Treatment to achieve tight blood sugar and blood pressure control will reduce the risk of retinopathy progression.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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