Reviews

The Fat Cell Killer Genius

The Fat Cell Killer Genius

The Neuropathy Recovery Program

The Neuropathy Recovery Program

The Flat Belly Code Review

The Flat Belly Code Review

Blood Pressure Decreaser Review

Blood Pressure Decreaser Review

The Big Diabetes Lie Review

The Big Diabetes Lie Review

Does The Kidney Disease Solution Actually Work

Does The Kidney Disease Solution Actually Work

Cure Erectile Dysfunction Review

Cure Erectile Dysfunction Review

Articles

The pros and cons of an islet transplant

The advantages of the islet transplantation include 1 Freedom from the need for insulin injections 1 Reversal of long-term diabetic complications 1 An end to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia 1 A return of hypoglycemic awareness Several risks are associated with islet transplantation. They include the following 1 Danger of bleeding because heparin is given to prevent clotting of the portal vein for the injection 1 All the risks of the antirejection drugs used for intact pancreas transplantation...

The pros and cons of a pancreas transplant

Are you nervous at the thought of undergoing a pancreas transplant Fret not here are several advantages of receiving a new pancreas i The benefit of needing no insulin injection and no dialysis after a combined kidney and pancreas transplant is enormous. Your quality of life improves tremendously. i With a combination kidney and pancreas transplant, your new kidney doesn't suffer the same deterioration as the original, damaged kidney. Without the healthy pancreas, the new kidney would...

Human Monotard Humulin Lente Hypurin Bovine Lente

Figure 50 Over 300 insulin preparations are available worldwide. They may be classified according to their duration of action short-acting soluble, neutral or regular , intermediate-acting isophane , long-acting insulin-zinc suspensions , and fixed mixtures of short- and intermediate-acting biphasic insulins . Some of the most commonly used insulins are summarized in this figure. It is preferable for the non-specialist to become familiar with a small number of appropriate insulins and insulin...

Regulation Of Blood Pressure

The maintenance of postural normotension without an excessive heart rate increment requires an adequate blood volume and the integration of reflex and humoral systems in several key vascular beds. These include striated muscle, splanchnic-mesenteric, and cerebrovascular beds. An adequate blood volume is essential. Hypovolemia regularly causes OH, even if vascular reflexes are intact. Hypovolemia can also be relative. Adrenergic den-ervation decreases vascular tone and increases vascular...

Wet Gangrene And Sepsis

A 65-year-old male patient who had type 2 diabetes since the age of 45 years and was being treated with sulfonylureas, was brought to the emergency clinic suffering from a fever. He had left paraplegia following a stroke 6 months earlier. One month before admission the toes of his left foot became gradually very painful Figure 7.5 Calf support device which provides a larger resting surface thus offloading pressure from the heel Figure 7.5 Calf support device which provides a larger resting...

What is the Pathophysiology of Elevated Plasma FFAs

Plasma FFA concentration reflects a balance between release by the intravascular lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipolysis of predominantly adipose tissue triglyceride stores and tissue uptake predominantly re-esterified in adipose tissue and liver and oxidized in muscle, heart, and liver . In the postabsorptive state, the systemic FFA concentration is determined largely by the rate of FFA entry into the circulation, but postprandially the rate of uptake esterification,...

Diffuse Osteopenia In The Foot

Figure 5.4 Neuropathic ulcer over a bony prominence in a patient with neuro-osteoarth-ropathy Figure 5.4 Neuropathic ulcer over a bony prominence in a patient with neuro-osteoarth-ropathy its base is clean, covered by healthy granulating tissue. Therapeutic footwear was prescribed extra depth shoes with an orthotic insole and a window under the ulcerated area and the patient was advised to minimize his activities. The ulcer healed in 3 months. Ulcers in patients with midfoot collapse recur very...

Fungal Infection With Multimicrobial Colonization

Superficial ulcers of 10 days' duration on the facing sides of the left first and second toe of a 70-year-old type 2 diabetic lady with diabetic neuropathy, before debridement are shown in Figures 8.8 and 8.9. Note soaking of the skin. An X-ray excluded osteomyelitis. Staphylococcus coagulase-negative, Pseudomonas aerugi-nosa and enterobacteriaceae were recovered after swab cultures in addition to Candida albicans. She was treated successfully with itraconazole for 5 weeks. The patient used a...

Guidelines For Dosing Correctionsupplemental Insulin

Correction or supplemental doses of insulin CDI are administered to correct hyper-glycemia that results in spite of the patient having taken the usual prescribed basal and prandial insulin doses. CDI is taken in addition to the usual basal and or bolus insulin dose s to be administered at the time when the FS BG is checked and found to be high. The CDI should not be large enough to cause, nor taken so frequently that overlapping peaks insulin stacking will result in hypoglycemia. Typically,...

Normal Insulin Physiology

The healthy pancreas secretes insulin into the portal system in response to daily variations in nutrient intake and energy expenditure. Polonsky et al. carefully characterized the normal 24-h insulin secretion of healthy subjects 4 . They found that daily insulin secretion was pulsatile and could be divided into two components a constant basal secretion rate and marked increases in insulin secretion following meals Fig. 1 . The basal component of insulin release, which comprises approximately...

Diabetic Foot Ulceration

The risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration can be categorized into three distinct groups pathophysiological, anatomic deformities, and environmental influences. The pathophysiological changes, which occur at the biomolecular level lead to changes that result in the development of peripheral sensory neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, and a compromised immune system with alteration in wound healing capabilities. The second group with anatomic deformities are largely the result of motor...

Nonalcoholic Steatohepatosis

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, has recently become increasingly recognized and may progress to end-stage liver disease. It is histologically indistinguishable from the liver damage that is secondary to alcohol abuse, but occurs in people with no history of alcohol excess. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has a wide spectrum of liver damage ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. The combination of steatosis, infiltration by mononuclear or...

Xxy Klinefelter Child

Andersen RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, et al. Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 1998 279 938-42 Atkinson MA, Eisenbarth GS. Type I diabetes new perspectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet 2001 358 221-9 Bottazzo GF. Death of a beta cell homicide or suicide Diabetic Med 1986 3 119-30 Chiasson JL, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, et al. The...

Insulin Hormone Sensitive Lipase Ketoacidosis

I HGP Jglycogenolysis, I gluconeogenesis t Glucose uptake FA esterification I TG lipolysis t Glucose uptake FA esterification I TG lipolysis Fig. 1. Glucose and FFA homeostasis. A. Postabsorptive fasting period Stimulation of adipose tissue lipases, HSL and ATGL, by low plasma insulin concentrations and elevated glucagon, facilitates mobilization of stored triglycerides, releasing fatty acids into the circulation. Low insulin and high glucagon also stimulates gluconeogenesis from FFA and other...

Intraretinal Microvascular Abnormalities

Aiello LP, Gardner TW, King GL, et al. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 1998 21 143-56 Angulo P. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. N Engl J Med 2002 346 1221-31 Archer AG, Watkins PJ, Thomas PK, Sharma AK, Payan J. The natural history of acute painful diabetic neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 1983 46 491-9 Arkkila PE, Kantola IM, Viikari JS, et al. Dupuytren's disease in type 1 diabetic patients a five-year prospective study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1996 14 59-65 Barnett AH, Dodson PM....

Disseminated Granuloma Annulare

Granuloma annulare GA is an idiopathic disorder that occurs in both children and adults. The individual lesions are pink to skin-colored papules and they often coalesce to form rings and arcs, hence the term annulare. In the classic form of the disease, lesions are found predominantly on the distal extremities. One theory advanced to explain the distribution of GA is that it represents an unusual granulomatous reaction to trauma or arthropod bites. Occasionally, a patient will have generalized...